International Journal of Advance Research in Nursing
2021, Vol. 4, Issue 1, Part E
Knowledge, attitude and practices of pregnant women aged 18-49 years towards pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) in Bindura district: Zimbabwe: A case control study
Dorothy Kanyamura, Matilda Zvinavashe and Petty Makoni
Background: Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH) control among pregnant women emerge to be complicated to accomplish. Part of the main reason for poor control of hypertension is inadequate knowledge, practices and attitude towards PIH. It is one of the main causes of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality globally, especially in the developing nations. This was an assessment done towards understanding the management of PIH in Mashonaland Central.
Objective: To assess knowledge, attitude and practices of pregnant women towards PIH.
Methodology: Mixed methods approach which includes both quantitative and qualitative research fundamentals was used. Mothers with PIH, who visit health facility at 3 and 7 days and at 6 weeks were selected as the case group and mothers without PIH who visit health facility were the control group. A minimum sample of 217 cases and 217 controls was used. Interviews were conducted after ethical approval by the research bodies and after the women consented. Women within the age group of 18-49 years who were diagnosed with PIH during pregnancy and may still have PIH after delivery (March 2020 to December 2020) and women without PIH (n=217) from the same period were the research participants. Four focus group discussions (FGDs), each with 8 participants, were also held. The women were interviewed after ethical approval by the research bodies and after the women consented. Detailed notes were taken during the interviews which were also audiotaped. The results were analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used to determine the odds ratios and significant difference among the cases and the control groups.
Results: Themes identiﬁed were demographic data of participants in relation to the development of PIH, and knowledge on PIH among pregnant women. Being in the age group 18-20 years had a statistically significant negative and defensive effect against development of PIH. The likelihood of being a PIH case increased with age. Participants in the age group of 41 and above are 4.503 times likely to develop PIH in comparison to other age groups (O.R=4.503; 95% C.L=1.780-11392). Having only primary education increased the odd of being a PIH case by 78%. Participants who were in the apostolic sect were 52.130 times likely to developed PIH and this was significantly higher than other religions and statistically significant at p<0.05. Being self-employed can have a positive significant association with the development of PIH. Majority 182 (84%), among cases and 146 (67.3%) among controls were not aware of the signs and symptoms of PIH respectively. Majority of participants among the cases, 165 (76%) and 155 (71.4%) among the control group were not aware of the prevention of PIH complications. Of the cases 143 (65.9%) agree that PIH can cause the death or serious illness of a pregnant mother if it is not managed.
Conclusion: The study recommends training of health care providers on culture specific measures to manage PIH, decentralization of health centres to improve health care service delivery systems as well as training of peer educators to give health education and support to mothers affected by PIH.
Dorothy Kanyamura, Matilda Zvinavashe, Petty Makoni. Knowledge, attitude and practices of pregnant women aged 18-49 years towards pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) in Bindura district: Zimbabwe: A case control study. Int J Adv Res Nurs 2021;4(1):340-346. DOI: 10.33545/nursing.2021.v4.i1.E.170