Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) management: A concept analysis
Dorothy Kanyamura, Mathilda Zvinavashe and Petty Makoni
Background: There is no single definition of PIH as well as its management. As a result, many approaches have been introduced such as Non-Pharmacological and Pharmacological. Despite the ambiguity of definition of PIH and its management, understanding it is crucial in the reduction of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality.
Methodology/methods: Walker and Avant’s framework was used to analyze the concept and the related literature published between 1990 and 2019 was reviewed. A systematic review of a total of 66 papers was done. Articles that had information on PIH and its management were reviewed.
Results: The main antecedents of PIH were identified which are, stressors in the environment which may be physiological, psychological or socio-cultural, patient’s age is also included, number of pregnancies, the educational level, religion,and employment. They may also include maternal characteristics such as anaemia, cardiovascular conditions, endocrine disorders such as diabetes mellitus. Enviromental characteristics for example, presence of services as well as distance, accessibity of the health care, cost of health care services, staffing and staff attitudes and cultural practices.
Conclusion: A full understanding of the concept of PIH management will help in standardization of tools used to measure and monitor PIH management with the intention of curbing effects of PIH. A framework for the management of PIH will enhance transparency in reporting PIH management.